# The math behind basketball’s wildest moves

At the moment I’m taking the Math in sports course at edX/University of Notre Dame and since you tend to see the things you focus on, math related sports or sports related math, seems to be everywhere right now.
The other day I stumbled across this fascinating video from TED: The math behind basketball’s wildest moves, where Rajiv Maheswaran talks about analysing movement. Wow! I try to extrapolate into the future and imagine where this kind of technology will take us in, say rugby in a couple of years and it’s… well, fascinating! And a bit scary too.
Have a look and see for yourself. Where do you think this technology will take us and our sports?

# DIY \$20 stabilizing rig

When you’ve spent a small fortune on a good camera and you find that watching the movie clips you shoot with it makes you seasick, since it’s shaking so much, what do you do then?
Camera equipment can be ridiculously expensive, so you’re wondering “How can I fix this problem without spending too much money?”.

When I want to come really close to the rugby action and want to study individual technique in, say breakdowns, or want a good wide-angle view of the defense from behind, I use my GoPro.
To keep it from shaking when I move I need a stabilizing rig for the camera. Buying a metallic rig -even a fairly cheap one – like the Fotodiox GoTough Wedge (though certainly not the only option available) can set you back a hefty \$150 or more. So instead I’ve built a small rig from plastic sewage pipes which you can get in any hardware store for around \$20.

Since I built it last summer, lots of people from both local amateur clubs as well as players and PAs from major professional european rugby clubs have asked me about it and encouraged me to patent the design.
Well, to be honest, I got the idea from YouTube (where else!?) so I can’t patent it and it’s really so simple to make that anyone can do it.

This is how you make a DIY \$20 GoPro stabilizing rig:

Just cut a sewage pipe into 6 parts and use 2 90° connectors, 2  45° connectors and a T-shaped connector to put it all together.

I also added some padding just to make it nicer to hold (and it also floats in water, making it easier to stabilize if you dive with it. Just make sure to seal it well to keep the water out of the pipes.)

Easy!

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# Improve tackles using a Wii remote control

Sounds weird?
Well, not all teams have the economy to buy “G-force measurement gadgets” to use in analysis of forces involved in tackles. So they haven’t been able to use that kind of data when they’re working to improving tackle techniques….
Unless they’re ready to think a little outside of the box.

The Wii remote control has an accelerometer built into it and can send data about it’s pitch, yaw, roll and acceleration in X, Y and Z over a bluetooth connection. Usually the receiver of that data is a Wii console. That is, of course, the whole idea with the Wii remote – to be able to play the games based on how you move the control.

But – if you connect that remote to a computer and record the data it sends, you can graph the registered acceleration and visualize the G-forces the remote is exposed to when moving it around.
A bit nerdy? Yes! And useful for a PA with a tight budget.

So fasten the remote to a tackling bag using some classic duck tape, connect the remote to the computer and then record it’s data while performing tackle drills. You would then get the G-force data onto your computer, and the rest is up to your usual analysis and coaching process…

I’ve tested software from Eziosoft to record the data and it works just fine. A little unstable sometimes, but at no cost at all, what can you expect? Info on how to connect a Wii remote can be found either at the Eziosoft webpage or at the Wiimote Project.
I’m sure there are other Wii remote solutions, or other cheap ways of measuring impact force/acceleration/G-forces out there. Please let me and the rest of the PA community know by telling us about it in the comments below or tweet about it.

Earlier today I read an article about a study on rugby kicking.

In the blog post “Triggers of golden questions” I write about the questions certain situations raises. And this study is certainly a situation like that.

In this case, after reading the study, you’re faced with data on performance, not necessarily closely related to what you do, but still it makes you ask yourself,  both as an individual but also  regarding your business:

• Where and when do I perform at my best?
• Why there and then? Under what circumstances do I perform at my best?
• Can I create those circumstances elsewhere or more frequently?
• Which factors could be changed to create a more positive outcome?
• What would it take to do so?
• If I should do so, how will I measure if I get any effect out of it?

I would also ask – related to the part about Dan Carter being a great kicker, but perhaps not the greatest when it comes to kick under pressure – the following:

• Do I know who’s my best performer?
• Why that person?
• Under what circumstances are that person performing at his/her best?
• What kind of circumstances should we avoid?
• Which are the key factors for his/her success?
• What can I and the rest of my team learn from that person?
• Can we create more of those positive circumstances without wearing my team out? Are they the same for everyone on the team or is it an individual thing?

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# Triggers of golden questions

Every morning at work we have a stand-up meeting when our group talk about what we did yesterday and how that went, what we’ll focus on today and what we can prepare for tomorrow. The reason for this is so that the entire group can see what’s going on, who’s doing what and that all important tasks are taken care of.  It’s also a lot about learning. Why did it go well yesterday? What did I do that made that success possible or what was the main reason to my failure in completing the tasks I had focus on?

In a very structured meeting like this, where everyone answers the same questions with a specific purpose, it’s easy to find the right questions to ask yourself and eachother. But what about outside a meeting like that? What triggers those questions? Those you actually learn from?

## Challenging the status quo

One of the most important things for learning to take place is to challenge the status quo, to be able to see a different reality as possible, and therefor asking the questions associated with that reality:

• What if…? – to find alternatives to the current situation
• What would it look like if…? – to see what a different situation would look like if one of the alternatives were true
• What would it take to…? – to focus on requirements for something to happen
• Why is it that…? – to create understanding and/or find root causes

When a different situation can be visualized or imagined, and also described with

• root causes to the current situation
• the alternative or different situation/solution
• the effect it could have
• requirements or a plan to make it come true

then it is much easier to learn from a situation and turn that knowledge into action and actually change the situation – if that is what you want.

This is an important part of coaching in both business and sports. For instance in the coaching model GROW.
So asking the right questions at the right time is key to any kind of learning which is required for any kind of structured change.

## So how can you challenge the status quo?

By being convinced that there’s always a better way to do what you do and there is always more to learn, you can start asking yourself “What about this situation is currently unknown to me?” “What can I learn from this?” “What would a different angle on this situation be?” “How can this situation be better?” “What does great look like in this situation?

Questions like that are the golden questions, those you can learn from and challenge the status quo, the foundation of knowledge, change and improvement.

## Finding triggers to golden questions

So do I ask myself these questions constantly? All the time? Isn’t that very time-consuming?
Well, yes, it could be. But it also makes changing things quicker and easier. So you have to find the right balance between challenging/questioning and actually performing work/change.

But certain situations are triggers of such questions, like

• if you meet someone with a different opinion or angle of what you do
• Or if you come in contact with metrics on what you do or the effect it has
• Or if you see your contribution to the value chain in a bigger picture, for instance in a company-wide meeting with different divisions
• Or, like in sports, how offence and defence in a team are interacting and working (hopefully) together towards a common goal.

Cherish those situations and expose yourself to them as much as possible to learn more about you and your situation. Then apply the questions, and the answers to those will provide you with the knowledge you need to act, comfortable with the fact that you’re doing the right thing.

This is of course not always as easy as it sounds. It’s a matter of practice to get better at this process – finding situations, asking questions, turning answers into knowledge into action and steering and following up those actions to create change, reaching goals and learning from the entire process.

This continuous practice is called a lot of different things depending on their angle – continual improvements, Lean, Six sigma and so on, but whatever flavour you choose, the fundamental base of getting better at what you do is the same. No matter if it’s in business or in sports.

So go find situations and people who trigger your golden questions. Happy hunting!

# Tracking Physical Improvement

Interesting read on tracking physical improvements in a relatively simple way (much like the Simple Frequency Form) from PropelPerform. I would, however, be careful to only implement this for players training for elite performance, not in regular youth teams/clubs.
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# What is a KPI?

KPIs are one of the most misunderstood terms in the world of business as well as in sports. It stands for Key Performance Indicator.

Key – as in something important, something vital.
Indicator – as in indication, a hint of something.

So it’s an indication on how well you are performing something. But what about the Key thing? The important stuff? Is the KPI an important indicator or an indicator of something important?

## Important indicators or indicators of important stuff?

You see, we can measure anything and call it a KPI. That doesn’t means it is a KPI. It’s just lipstick on a pig.
There are loads of important things in a company or on a rugby or football pitch that can be measured. If you do, you’ll get indications of important stuff. That doesn’t mean that those metrics are the game changing indicators, the information that leads to better decision-making, your best KPIs.

But if you instead measure activity or processes to get important indicators, those which may help you make better decisions, then you’re on the right track. You’re using KPIs.

## KPI – a dangerous creature?

If KPIs were animals the would most likely be sharks. Beautiful, strong, necessary for the ecology in the ocean, but often misunderstood and extremely dangerous if pushed or mistreated.
A good KPI can be beautiful (in a somewhat nerdy way), it’s definitely a strong helper in getting better results, I would argue it’s necessary to have them in one way or another to make really good decisions and, yes – they are misunderstood and potentially dangerous for your company’s or team’s desired results if you treat them the wrong way or measure the wrong things, like if you only get indicators of important stuff.

In the excellent article “Can players game the system?” from thevideoanalyst.com you can read about what happened when Clive Woodward introduced heart rate monitors to the England Rugby team. As soon as they saw their heart rates they wanted their numbers to go up. Not because they actually wanted their hearts to beat faster, but just to raise the numbers. It’s a trigger of competition to show numbers, any kind of numbers, to competitive people. And if you don’t think about why you measure something and how to use and present that data, dangerous things can happen. Like players doing unnecessary sprints, wasting their energy and power, just to get their numbers up. That wasn’t really what Clive had in mind…

So make sure to measure the right things!

## How do I know what to measure?

A KPI is a – leading or lagging – qualitative or a quantitative measure of how well you are performing against your critical success factors.

In other words, it’s a measure of how well you are doing what you know will lead you to success. So now you just have to find out what leads you to success!

Assuming you have clearly defined, measurable, goals based on your vision and purpose you can then write down your critical success factors for reaching those goals.
Think of:
What must be in place for you to be able to reach your goals?
What are the key things you have to do to make sure you reach your goals?
Those things are your critical success factors! KPIs are the measurement on these factors. Let me show you an example:

### The goal

You want to go from where you currently are to the city of Smallville and be there by 21:00 today.
A pretty simple goal which is easy to measure if you have reached or not, right? Either you are there at 21:00, or you’re not.

### The process

• Plan (calculations of which road to take, which vehicle to use, how far it is to Smallville from where you are, check speed limits, when to start your journey)
• Travel
• Evaluation (check time of arrival to see if you’ve met your goal)

### The success factors

• Regular calculation of where I am and the remaining way to travel
• Knowing my speed
• Knowing the remaining time until 21:00
• Choosing the right vehicle for the task
• Having enough fuel for the task
• Avoid unnecessary stops (like being stopped by the police while driving because of speeding)

I’m sure there are more of them, but for this example… well, you get the picture.

### The KPIs

By measuring my success factors (current speed, current time, remaining way to go, fuel consumption…) I get my KPIs:

• Necessary average speed to reach goal by 21:00 = X km/h (or mph)
• Remaining amount of fuel vs estimated amount of fuel necessary to reach goal by 21:00 = Y %

### The frequency

I also need to set:

• Frequency of recalculation of KPIs = Z times/hour

## Using the KPIs

I then check, with the frequency of Z times/hour, if my current speed is the same as X and if I have enough fuel (Y%) for the remaining way to go.

If I don’t check this often enough, I might be in for a surprise. If I only check it once, I might end up in the situation that I find that I either reached my goal or I didn’t. I must check it more often. If I check it too often – like two times per minute – I might be too busy calculating to get any actual driving done. (or I take the wrong turn somewhere!)

So the right frequency is VERY important.

### Action

By following my process and I’m checking my KPIs with the right frequency, I can be comfortable that I will reach my goal on time.
If the KPIs show that I, under the current circumstances, might not reach my goal on time, I can make the necessary decisions and take action before the damage is done. I might have to change route, vehicle or something else to improve on my KPIs, meaning I will get to my goal on time.

The KPIs are my important indicators of how well I’m performing what I know will bring me to my goal – my success factors.

KPIs can be either lagging or leading. Let me explain:

### Lagging

A lagging KPI in a store could be: Amount (\$) sold during Q3?. It can only be measured after Q3 has ended and you can’t do anything to improve this KPI during this Q3. You can only improve on it the next time around.
It’s reactive and has a low frequency.

Leading KPIs in the same store could be:
For instance you might have to measure number of customers/day and spent amount/customer to predict sales for Q3 and give you the opportunity to affect these KPIs to improve on the result for Q3.
It’s proactive and has a high frequency.

But what happens if the frequency of a leading KPI is too low?
It becomes lagging! Make sure to avoid that.

## Energy and learning

KPIs should be simple to understand so the can give you energy and help you focus on reaching your goals. They should also assist learning and the discussion of “Why did this event affect the KPIs in this was?” or “Which of these tasks might affect the KPIs the most in a positive direction? Which should we prioritize?”

Too complicated or uninspiring KPIs will soon be forgotten because none cares about them and then they’re to no use at all. So keep it simple!
And when you’ve had your KPIs around for a while, try to exchange them for fresh ones, even if they’re connected to the same success factors as the ones you currently have.  Old KPIs lose their ability to give energy, so a new one once in a while could be a simple way of boosting your organization.

## The purpose of a KPI

So to sum this up – the purpose of a KPI is to help you, in an easy way, to make better decisions, to make sure you reach your goals!

# Videoanalys – Varför då?

This post is in Swedish only…

Denna film gjordes inför ett utvecklingsläger under sommaren 2013 för 16-17 åriga rugbyspelare som elitsatsar med målet att komma med i U18-landslaget under 2014, för att de skulle få en bild av vad videoanalys är och varför vi kommer att använda oss av det som en del i utvecklingen av dem som spelare och det U18-landslag som de hoppas bli en del av.

Filmen innehåller en del rugbyspecifika termer och scener, men fungerar precis lika bra för ledare och affärsfolk i alla positioner, för att förmedla ett budskap om varför man bör mäta (och hur) för att kunna säkerställa att man rör sig i rätt riktning och med rätt fart för att nå sina mål, dvs att ta ansvar för sin egen framgång.

# PA trip to Munster

Lennie, Gail, the coaches at Rockwell College (Munster Rugby Talent Camp)
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